A study was conducted to evaluate the roles of crack closure and microstructure in the fatigue growth of short cracks. Testing was performed at R ratios of 0.1, 0.5, and 0.7. At all R ratios short cracks exhibited accelerated growth rates in comparison to long cracks. It was concluded that crack closure could not entirely account for the accelerated growth rates of short cracks. The accelerated growth rates occurred over crack lengths on the order of grain size, suggesting a strong influence of microstructure. A significant effect of grain boundaries and inclusions on short crack FCG behavior was observed. For very short crack lengths, fatigue growth rates do not appear to be a function of either delta K or R ratio.